• Infographic:

    Colors of the Eye

    From the famous lines of beloved songs to the stories of ancient legends, eye color has captivated audiences throughout time. The origins and genetic makeup associated with eye color makes the color of one’s eye more complex than a simple collection of aesthetic traits, however. Genes and pigment concentrations are two important factors in determining eye color. Some eye colors are more rare than others and can be linked to genetics or family origins and heritage.

    Hannah Scanga, MS, a genetic counselor at the UPMC Eye Center, explains, “The two primary genes that influence the color of the eye, primarily brown and blue eyes, are OCA2 and HERC2. Additional genes influence other eye colors and specific variations, including green or hazel eyes and gold rings.” The scale of eye color from most to least common is brown, blue, hazel, green, and silver.

    According to Ellen Mitchell, MD, “Concentrations of the pigment melanin in the iris of the eye is the primary determinant of eye color. Higher amounts of melanin lead to darker colors while lower amounts result in lighter eye colors.” Dr. Mitchell continues, “The pigment lipochrome also plays a role in determining eye color, specifically green eyes.”

    Eye color can also change due to factors like pupil size, emotions, and age. However, if these changes are drastic or only occur in one eye this may indicate a medical condition and you should discuss symptoms with a doctor.Eye Color Infographic

    Are you still curious about some of the fascinating facts behind blue (green, or brown) eyes? Visit the UPMC Eye Center website to learn more about the latest breakthroughs in the field of optometry and the different eye conditions we treat. Call 1-800-446-3797 to schedule an appointment today.

    Read More
  • 5 Ramen Noodle

    “Health Hacks”

    It’s that time of year again. The time when college students flock back to campus, ready to ace their tests, reunite with friends, and feast on the infamously unhealthy Ramen Noodles. Unfortunately, the beloved college-food was the subject of a recent health study, which linked it to series health issues. Even more disheartening? These issues were gender specific. Women who ate the noodles at least twice per week saw a 68 percent increase in their risk of cardiometabolic syndrome, while men saw no notable difference in their risk. But with all-nighters and deadlines looming, it’s not easy to toss the prepackaged delicacy into the trash for good. So what’s a busy college kid to do?

    Leslie Bonci, director of sports nutrition at UPMC Center for Sports Medicine, commented on the story and assured students that it doesn’t take much effort to make Ramen healthier. So next time late-night hunger strikes, try these simple steps to save your wallet and your health:

    Ramen Graphic

    1. Ditch the Seasoning

    The sky-high sodium content is the biggest health issue, so try adding flavor another way! Use water or broth and flavor it with garlic, ginger, herbs, chili, or sesame oil.

    2. Add Veggies

    If you live on campus, grab some vegetables from the salad bar to use in your Ramen. Otherwise, break out the frozen veggies to give your noodles an extra kick of nutrients!

    3. Pack in the Protein

    Chicken, shrimp, tuna, tofu, grilled salmon, eggs…the list goes on! Any protein you choose will make your Ramen healthier and keep you feeling full longer than Ramen alone.

    4. Use your Leftovers

    Have extra food from last night’s dinner? Combine it with ramen noodles (sans seasoning) for a delicious reworking that makes you forget you’re eating leftovers.

    5. Go Dry

    Cook the noodles, drain, and lightly toss in your favorite dressing or sauce! Think low-sodium soy sauce, Italian dressing, vinaigrette, or teriyaki sauce.

    6. Get Creative

    There are dozens (if not hundreds) of Ramen recipes for you to try. There are even Ramen Noodle cookbooks! So don’t settle for boring noodles, spice it up with a creative recipe.

    Eating habits tend to change when entering college mode, as campus life warrants an active and hectic lifestyle. Quick, convenient and unhealthy meals often take center stage, landing healthy eating and cooking in the bleachers. When you’re looking to get creative with regular old Ramen, check out some of our health hacks. Think of it as teaching an old dog new tricks, but this time you’re the dog and the tricks are disguised as noodles. Bring your dorm room dining to a new level while also becoming more conscious of the ingredients your putting in your body!

    How do you make your Ramen healthier? Share your ideas below!

    Read More
  • 7 Health Benefits of

    Lemon Juice

    There’s more to lemons than meets the eye. This fruit may pair well with some of your favorite dishes, but it also offers incredible health benefits. Lemons are packed with nutrients, promote weight loss, and have even been linked to kidney stone prevention and cancer treatment! This tangy fruit has also been known to possibly help halt bad breath and get rid of dandruff when applied to the scalp. In addition to its properties as a beauty treatment and health aid, there are a number of uses for lemons. Whether you enjoy the fruit alone or with your morning tea, here are just a few reasons to embrace lemons and their juice:

    1. Relieves a sore throat: Warm water mixed with honey and lemon can soothe a sore throat during cold season.
    2. Cancer-fighting benefits: Studies have shown lemons may have anticancer benefits.
    3. Prevents kidney stones: Lemon juice is shown to help prevent kidney stones by raising the urine’s citrate levels.
    4. Aid in digestion: Lemon promotes the production of digestive enzymes in the liver, which help eliminate waste from your body.
    5. High in essential nutrients: Lemons are high in many vitamins like Vitamin C (promotes immunity and battles infection), calcium (important for muscle function, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion), potassium (helps muscles and nerves work properly), and folate (Fights against spinal birth defects and helps red blood cell formation).
    6. Promotes weight loss: The pectin in lemons and their juice helps you feel fuller for longer, which will make your weight loss much more manageable.
    7. Helps clear skin: Lemons have natural antibacterial qualities and alpha hydroxyl acids, like many over-the-counter acne medications. It brightens, exfoliates, and helps remove blackheads!

    So how will you incorporate lemons and lemon juice into your life? Have you already seen the benefits of lemon in your daily diet or personal care regimen? Tell us in the comments below!

    Read More
  • Understanding


    When you think of depression, you might think of being sad, or just down in the dumps. But in fact, it’s much more than that. It’s a clinical condition that can take control of your life and cause serious complications. According to the National Institute of Mental Health about 16 million people had at least one episode in the past year. To put that into perspective, that’s one out of every 10 people.

    depression graphic

    Symptoms of Depression and Treatment Options

    Depression symptoms may be different for everyone. One person may experience symptoms that seem to last for years, while others will only have moderate bouts and return to their normal life relatively quickly. However, depression can be treated, often with medication, psychological counseling or both. Other non-conventional treatments also may help. But before any type of treatment is initiated, the symptoms must be recognized. When people experience episodes of depression, they may suffer through:

    • Sadness, unhappiness, or an emptiness feeling
    • Sleep disturbances
    • Severe lack of energy where even the smallest tasks require extra effort
    • Loss of interest in hobbies or normal daily activities
    • Changes in appetite (some people may eat less and lose weight while some may overeat and gain weight)
    • Anxiety or restlessness
    • Fogginess, confusion, and slowed speaking or body movements
    • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, or suicide

    Causes of Depression

    Because depression is such a complex disease, the causes of it can greatly vary. One theory suggests that it may be caused from having too much or too little of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals communicate information throughout our brain and body. When the nerves that release these chemicals malfunction, too little or too much of these neurotransmitters may be released, which has been linked as a known cause of depression. Certain antidepressant medications work to control the release of these neurotransmitters.

    Yet, this information is not conclusive. Many researchers don’t agree that a simple increase or decrease of brain chemicals is the lone factor when determining that causes of depression. Rather, it’s a combination of factors, which may include:

    • Genetic vulnerability (depression may be more common in people whose relatives also suffer, or have suffered from depression)
    • Faulty mood regulation by the brain
    • Stressful life events (loss of a loved one, high stress, childhood trauma or recent trauma)
    • Medications or medical problems

    Depression Is Not Mental Weakness

    Often, people associate being depressed as a sign of weakness. In a recent study conducted by the National Mental Health Association, out of 1,022 adults interviewed by telephone, 43 percent said they believed depression is a personal weakness. However, this is far from the truth. Depression does not discriminate. It can affect anyone of any ethnicity. Whether, you’re rich or poor, or old or young, depression can affect you.

    If you or someone you know is suffering from depression, seek help. It’s never too late talk to someone about getting better. There are an array of hot lines and helpful information where you can seek the help of professionals 24 hours a day. There is also helpful information on suicide awareness and prevention.

    Related Articles

    Read More
  • Dont Get Beat By

    The Heat

    The temperatures are rising and the weather is warm! As with every season, the summer months bring a whole new set of health risks due to the changing weather. In the midst of all the summer fun, you may be too caught up in the excitement to recognize when your body has been negatively affected by the heat. We sat down with Matthew Synan, MD, of Pulmonary Consultants–UPMC to discuss two particular health risks that people encounter during the summer: heat stroke and heat exhaustion.

    While they are two different conditions, many people often get confused because of their similarities. Both conditions are on the spectrum of temperature related illnesses, but differ in severity.

    Heat Exhaustion

    Heat exhaustion occurs when the body temperature is less than or equal to 104 F (40 C).

    Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:

    • Dizziness
    • Mild confusion (which normalizes within 30 minutes of treatment)
    • A faster heart rate with normal blood pressure
    • Mild to moderate dehydration.

    Heat Stroke

    Heat stroke can be the more serious of the two conditions. It occurs when the body’s core temperature is greater than 104 F (40 C), and is characterized by:

    • Abnormal mental status (such as delirium, hallucinations, or slurred speech),
    • A faster heart rate coupled with low blood pressure
    • Moderate to severe dehydration

    There are two distinct types of heat stroke and heat exhaustion: classic and exertional. Classic heat stroke and exhaustion can occur without any activity or physical exertion and is more common in individuals age 70 or older, or those who have a chronic medical condition. Exertional heat stroke and exhaustion occurs as a result of physical activity and is most common in young individuals who engage in heavy exercise during high temperatures such as athletes and military recruits.

    Some medications, such as allergy, heart, or psychiatric prescriptions can put you at an increased risk because these medications may limit the body’s ability to sweat.

    In the event that you should develop any symptoms of heat exhaustion, take actions quickly to cool yourself down by:

    • Removing clothing
    • Spraying yourself with cool water or taking a cool bath
    • Using fans
    • Applying ice packs to the armpit, neck, and groin.

    If not taken care of quickly, both of these conditions may evolve and result in:

    • Kidney, respiratory, and liver failure
    • Muscle breakdown
    • Blood disorders
    • Death

    Some ways to prevent the onset of these conditions is to limit your physical activity outside when the temperatures are highest or perform them in the evening when it is coolest. Also, wear loose clothing and take frequent breaks. Dr. Synan stresses that by far the most important thing to do is to drink plenty of fluids and stay hydrated!

    If you or someone you know has been hit with a heat-related illness, please follow these tips to help them recover. Do not hesitate to pay a visit to the Emergency Medicine at UPMC center for immediate treatment.

    Read More

Marathon Nutrition Q&A from UPMC’s Google Hangout

by Sports Medicine

We received some great questions during our UPMC Marathon Nutrition Google Hangout. Below are the answers to all of the questions. Thank you to everyone who listened in.

1.   When running the half, how often should you hydrate? and if using a GU or something similar when should you use it? What kind do you recommend? – Emily M.

How often you should hydrate depends upon your sweat rate. Weigh yourself before and after a long run. Convert that difference to ounces ( 16 ounces = 1 pound) and add to that the number of ounces of fluid you drink during your run, then divide by the number of hours you ran. The number you get is the number of ounces you should drink per hour on a training run or during the half.


130 lbs (pre run weight) – 128 lbs (post run weight) = 32 ounces +20 ounces of fluid consumed over a 2 hour run = 52 divided by 2 (2 hour run) = 26 ounces per hour

Water alone is sufficient for the first hour. After that you can look to add about 30 grams worth of carbohydrates – a GU, chews, chomps, Bloks  ( look at the package portion size) – in addition to water . Or you can substitute 16 ounces of sports drink.

Whatever you do, use what sits best in your stomach, in addition to what tastes best for you. If you are a salty sweater, you may be better off with Gatorade chews or a sports drink.

2.    How soon before the race is carb loading advised? During my long runs, I get hamstring / quad cramps around mile 20-23. Besides training harder, is there any nutritional tip ? (GU / hydrate around mile 18?)/ Thanks  – Jignesh U.

Start adding in more carbohydrates 3 days before the race, but only a little more at each meal such as ½ cup cereal, rice or pasta, a slice of bread, a serving of crackers, or a piece of fruit.

To help with the cramps, you need to determine if you are a salty sweater – sweat burns your eyes, tastes salty in your mouth and leaves a gritty residue on skin or clothes. Having more salt, such as adding salt to meals the day before and morning of the race, as well as adding salt to a sports drink can help. You need to try this out during training runs to see how it feels. The GU provides the carbohydrate for energy but won’t help with the muscle cramps. Make sure you are well hydrated.

3.    I have heard about carb depletion before carb loading in preparation for long races, what is the idea behind this and how do I carry it out? – Hannah P.

Carb depletion is the old way of carb loading. One would limit carbohydrate containing foods, and do exhaustive exercise to deplete muscle and liver glycogen stores, and then load up with carbs- the theory being that one could supersaturate the depleted stores and have more energy available for endurance exercise. The problem is that this method also causes the cells to hold a lot of water and runner would complain of feeling stiff the first few miles, so instead- try to increase your carbs as part of each meal/snack in the 3 days leading up to the race- this will accomplish the same goal but much more comfortably!

4.   What is the ideal food to eat for dinner the night before the race and for breakfast the morning of the race? – Sean T.

Nothing too high in fiber, protein or fat. Make sure it is easy to digest.

Favorite meals from our Hangout panelists include pasta with sauce or butter and cheese, or a sandwich with some soup.  For breakfast they mentioned coffee, half a bagel or a piece of bread with some peanut butter. Key is to stick to what you know works and will give you sufficient energy. Be careful to not overdo it or else you risk having an upset stomach during your run.

5.   So much focus is on nutrition prior and during the race (as it should be!), but what about after the race? What should I eat to help me recover? – Julia K.

So how do you discover your recover? What should post race eating look like? Sooner than later is better. Ideally eat something within 15 minutes of finishing if you can! Go for the carb-protein combo such as a cold bottle of low-fat chocolate milk, or a Greek yogurt with granola, if you are not too tired to chew! A fruit smoothie with added protein isolate also works. If you want savory, you could do cheese on a Bagel thin, or beef jerky and crackers if you have enough energy to eat them!

6.   What kind of breakfast do you recommend before running the half? Is a peanut butter sandwich too much protein before a half? – Maura S.

For the breakfast before your half marathon- first rule- eat what you have trained with. NO NEW FOODS on race day! If a peanut butter sandwich felt good in training, it will work! In general, breakfast should be 2-3 hours before the race- so a peanut butter/honey sandwich, or yogurt with granola, or oatmeal with nuts, dried fruit, or even a scrambled egg wrap would work if you have trained with these foods

7.   Seeking advice on what to eat and when to prevent post-run digestive issues. Sorry :( – Christine H.

To prevent gut issues be sure to stick to what you know works. Race day is not the time to experiment.
No high fiber foods before long runs – such as bran, beans, cabbage family foods. Be careful with how much fruit you eat since it can go through you more quickly. Caffeine can also have a laxative effect. And remember these three little words: “Less is More” during the race. After the first hour, aim for 30 grams of carbohydrates per hour so either a GU, gel, chomps, chew or bloks with water OR sports drinks, but not both.

8.   Is carb overloading still practiced or recommended? – Liz A.

Carbohydrates are the best fuel source for running. It is recommended that you start carboloading three days ahead of time by adding a tennis ball-sized amount more to each meal.

9.    What if you do not like pasta? What else can you eat for carbohydrates? – Melissa R.

Rice, risotto, quinoa, potatoes (baked not fried) or just bread are all good alternatives.

10.   In your opinion, is an energy gel helpful for running a half marathon, or not really necessary? – Clare C.

Unless you are running a blistering pace, you may want to do a gel in the second hour (if you think you need it), but be sure to have it with water.

11.   I typically take in 20 grams of protein during a long run in the form of a clif builder bar spaced out along the route.  Additionally, 1 gel per 45 min- 1 hour, and few chews.  What is your view on protein intake during a run? – Tony D.

Protein is important to build muscle and repair post run, but not during. Protein during a run actually delays the carbs in your gut from leaving your stomach and getting to your muscles, so wait until you are done and have some protein along with your carbs.



About Sports Medicine

UPMC Sports Medicine is the region’s largest and most experienced center dedicated to caring for athletes of all levels. For more than 25 years of world-class care, we’re proud to offer more services, have more physicians, and treat more student athletes than any other sports medicine provider in the region.