stroke prevention and treatment options

The myths about strokes are numerous. Among the most popular — and perhaps one of the most dangerous — is that strokes are something that happens only to older adults.

In fact, a recent report by the American Stroke Association showed a sharp rise in hospitalizations among men and women ages 15 to 44, while rates declined by 25 percent among older adults.

Lowering your risk is the best way to avoid the life-changing impact strokes can have on you and your family. When strokes occur, fast action is critical to minimize damage. The window of opportunity for the most successful treatment is just three hours after onset.

Prevention: What You Can Do

Heart disease increases the chance of having a stroke. Because of this, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle and reduce the risks of heart disease.

While you can’t do anything about certain risk factors like age, family history, or ethnicity (Black Americans have a higher incidence of stroke), you can control high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.

Since high blood pressure and high cholesterol increase the risk of stroke, maintaining a healthy lifestyle to keep both low is important. Preventing a stroke is far better and easier than dealing with the consequences.

Treatment: Time Lost is Brain Lost

Every minute after the start of a stroke means greater risk of permanent damage or death. One of the best treatments for ischemic strokes — where a clot blocks blood flow to the brain — is the quick administration of the clot-busting drug called tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). While UPMC doctors have had success beyond three hours with a special procedure to retrieve the blockage or dissolve it with drugs administered directly into the clot, time is critical.

For patients experiencing hemorrhagic strokes caused by bleeding in the brain, fast action is needed to repair the leaking blood vessel.

Call 911

If you suspect someone has suffered a stroke, call for emergency medical help immediately so treatment can begin without delay.

Specialized stroke centers — such as UPMC’s Stroke Institute at UPMC Presbyterian, UPMC Shadyside, UPMC St. Margaret, and UPMC Mercy — have experts available 24 hours a day, seven days a week to diagnose and treat patients. The UPMC Stroke Telemedicine Program also uses technology to provide fast treatment to patients at other UPMC hospitals throughout western Pennsylvania.

Think FAST

Use this simple acronym to help determine whether you’re witnessing a stroke:

F ace: Can the person smile (or does one side of the face droop)?

A rms: Can the person raise both arms (or does one side drift downward)?

peech: Can the person speak clearly or repeat a simple phrase?

T ime: Call 911 immediately if someone exhibits any of these warning signs!


Strokes require immediate medical attention, so knowing the warning signs is crucial, says William Kristan, MD, chairman of the Department of Emergency Medicine at UPMC Passavant. Stroke symptoms can include sudden onset of:

  • Paralysis or weakness in the face or limbs, especially on one side of the body
  • Problems with balance or walking
  • Vision problems
  • Slurred speech
  • Confusion
  • Problems speaking or understanding
  • Severe headache

For more information on stroke diagnosis and management, contact the UPMC Stroke Institute to schedule an appointment or ask a question at 412-232-8840.