elderly man in wheelchair

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. It affects more than 5 million older adults in America.

There is no known cure for Alzheimer’s. Prevention and treatment strategies are still in development and require further research.

Alzheimer’s disease is the combination of dementia and abnormal structures found within the brain.

The early stages of the disease impair someone’s ability to learn, remember, and plan tasks.

People with late-stage Alzheimer’s have trouble with basic actions such as:

  • Walking
  • Dressing
  • Eating

Alzheimer’s dementia occurs due to the significant presence of two abnormal structures in the brain:

  • Beta-amyloid plaque
  • Neurofibrillary tangles

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What Are Plaque and Tangles in the Brain?

Most people think of tangles as something you brush out of your hair in the morning. And, isn’t plaque what a dentist scrapes off your teeth? Unfortunately, tangles and plaque in the brain aren’t so easily remedied.

For a complete overview of what happens to the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient, watch the video, “Inside the Brain: Unraveling the Mysteries of Alzheimer’s Disease.”

If you look at a brain with Alzheimer’s disease using MRI, you will see sections of the brain that have atrophied, most notably in the mesial temporal lobe.

The precise pathological process that leads to Alzheimer’s disease is unknown.

One theory is that beta-amyloid plaque—found outside of the cell—and neurofibrillary tangles—the clumping of deposits inside of the cell – cause a cascade of:

  • Inflammation.
  • Synaptic dysfunction and loss.
  • Cell death.

Researchers believe various glial cells in the brain surround amyloid plaques and neurons carrying neurofibrillary tangles, and the spreading of neurofibrillary tangles leads to Alzheimer’s dementia.

Is Alzheimer’s Genetic?

A complex interaction of risk factors is the cause of most Alzheimer’s cases.

These risks include:

  • Age.
  • Family history.
  • Environmental and lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise, and smoking.

About 1% of all cases are the result of particular genes. People with a genetic code for Alzheimer’s develop the disease early, in their 30s and 40s.

How Do You Care For Alzheimer’s Disease?

Alzheimer’s often complicates caregiving because it might be just one health issue among others. Your loved one with Alzheimer’s may also need care for three or four other health problems.

Doctors at the University of Pittsburgh’s Division of Geriatric Medicine, designated a National Center of Excellence by the John Hartford Foundation, recognize the multi-layered response necessary for developing individualized treatment.

The University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) is one of the nation’s leading research centers, specializing in diagnosing and researching Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders like dementia. The center is funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA).

Editor's Note: This article was originally published on , and was last reviewed on .

About UPMC Senior Services

UPMC Senior Services provides resources for older adults, their loved ones, and caregivers at every stage of the aging process. We connect them with educational programs and learning opportunities to help support them, using our services to help seniors live longer and healthier lives. We partner with other organizations to determine the biggest challenges facing seniors and work to overcome them. We also work to inform in-home caregivers, hospital clinicians, and staff about the biggest challenges seniors face, striving to improve care. To learn more about our mission, visit our website.