Neurosurgery and Brain Health ADHD and Autism: What’s the Connection? By Pediatrics, May 25, 2016 Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have many overlapping symptoms, making it difficult for some to get an accurate diagnosis. Approximately one in five kids diagnosed with autism had an earlier ADHD diagnosis, but there doesn’t seem to be a direct connection between the two conditions. Learn more about the similarities and differences between autism and ADHD. Overlapping Symptoms Between Autism and ADHD Both disorders seem to be caused by genetics and tend to run in families. They also have some similar symptoms, particularly ones that are usually attributed to ADHD. Some of these include: Fidgeting or trouble settling down Impulsiveness Hyperfocus, or being extremely focused only on things of interest Social awkwardness However, both conditions have other tell-tale signs that distinguish them from one another What Is Autism? Autism Spectrum Disorder is a specific type of neurodevelopmental disorder. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1 in 68 children in America has autism. One of the most recognizable signs is delayed verbal communication in young children. Children may talk at much later ages and sometimes not at all. The disorder can reliably be diagnosed in children by age 2. Other symptoms include: Repetitive behavior Difficulty with social interactions Despite the perception, many people with autism have above average intelligence, about 40 percent. What Is ADHD? ADHD is a very different type of condition. Although commonly pictured as the fidgeting, squirming kid full of energy, there are actually three types of ADHD: Inattentive: trouble paying attention and following directions, daydreaming, forgetful, tends to lose things Hyperactive-impulsive: interrupting, trouble waiting their turn, squirming, excessive talking, excessive running or climbing Combined: a child who shows traits of both types Children and adults with ADHD tend to be highly creative and imaginative. This is in part because of different “wiring” in the brain. This condition is diagnosed in about 10 percent of school-age kids. It also tends to run in families. Many adults don’t realize they have ADHD until their child receives a diagnosis, and they begin to recognize symptoms in themselves. Learning disabilities are present in about half of kids with ADHD. Because of the challenges in diagnosing the correct condition, it’s important to see a professional with experience. There are many ways to get help, from behavioral therapy to at-home modifications, such as more routine or organization, to medications. The earlier you receive a diagnosis, the sooner you can begin finding ways to help your child or yourself adapt. Learn more about Behavioral Health Services at UPMC.