triathlon exercises training

For many athletes, a triathlon is the pinnacle of competitive sports. Participating in this event is no easy feat, and while different variations exist, all triathlons involve multiple sports — the most common being a combination of running, swimming, and cycling.

Triathlon training keeps you ready to take on the challenge, but it’s important to do your homework in order to be as prepared as possible.

It’s important to be as prepared as possible, but before you go out and spend thousands on gear, make sure triathlon is your sport:

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Cardio Exercise for Triathlons

The three major triathlon events all involve cardiovascular exercise. It’s best to stagger your workouts so that you’re swimming, running, and cycling a few times each week. For each activity, try these tips:


Learn more about the nutrition needs of competitive swimmers
  • Work up to being able to easily swim approximately 2,000 meters
  • For some swim workouts, do intervals with timed paces and increasing speeds


running marathon race
  • Find a running plan that fits your current fitness, distance, and time goals. If possible, schedule some of your practice runs on sections of the actual course


  • Work up to being able to easily ride 40K
  • You can also replace a bike ride with a cycling class to mix things up

Triathlon Strength Training

Cardio exercise is only part of the battle — you also need to ensure that your muscles are strong. Strength training prepares your body for the specific movements you’ll make when you swim, run, and cycle. Strength-training a few times a week is an important part of making sure you are ready to compete, and can also help you prevent injuries.

Cool Down Post-Training

Stretching and cooling down is key to any workout, and triathlon training is no exception. Try these moves after you exercise:

  • Roll your calves on a foam roller
  • Rub the soles of your feet over a small ball (golf ball size)
  • Practice upward and downward dog yoga poses
  • Stretch your hamstrings by gently pulling your raised leg to your chest while lying on your back (a resistance band can help with this)
  • Lie on your back and move your hips and upper body in opposite directions to stretch your lower back

Here are some tips on preparing for the race beyond just being able to physically complete each portion:

  • Rest—many new triathletes will focus on training for the swim, bike, and run while forgetting that a racing body needs rest. For the best performance and decreased likelihood of injury, don’t skimp on your daily rest — this includes muscle rest (get off your feet) and mental rest.
  • Transitions—a triathlon is not just a swim, bike, run, but rather a choreographed race through the transition zones. Since your T1 (transition zone 1 time) and T2 are part of your race, you should practice them just like you swim, bike, and run in preparation. And, remember, it’s more than just a gear change: Your muscles are also transitioning from one type of activity to another and they need practice.
  • Weaknesses—many new triathletes are stronger in one discipline than another and are tempted to maximize their strengths in workouts because it feels better. In a triple race like a triathlon, your strengths don’t always make up for your weaknesses. If you are a great runner, work on your swimming. If you are a great swimmer, cover the miles or work on bike technique. Your strengths will kick in when times are hard, so maximize your weaknesses for your best race.
  • Mental training—remember the race is really only 5 1/2 inches long. Triathlon is a tough mental event, but if you have put in the physical training, the true triathlon often happens in the 5 1/2 inches between your ears. It takes resilience, problem-solving, sheer grit, and sometimes even a motivating mantra to pull you through. Practice the mental game just like your physical training with visualization, finding a mantra that helps you dig deep and pull through.
  • Nutrition—make sure you are optimizing your nutrition and learning what works best for your body.
    • Race Day Nutrition Do’s:

      • Incorporate a carbohydrate-rich fueling plan the day of the race. Carbohydrates are the primary fuel used in long endurance events.
      • Practice your pre-competition and during-competition fueling plans. Use the same plan the day of competition that you’ve used during training.
      • Use similar timing during training and on race day with your meals, snacks and, hydration
      • Deliver a consistent carbohydrate fueling throughout the competition.
    • Race Day Nutrition Don’ts:

      • Don’t skip breakfast! Fatigue is certain to set in without proper fueling a few hours prior to competition
      • Don’t eat a large meal right before the competition. A large meal will sit in the gut and cause possible cramping and sickness.
      • Avoid fried, high fat, or spicy foods
      • Don’t try any new foods the day of the race. Stick to your plan.

Prepare for your triathlon with the help of the sports medicine performance experts at UPMC Sports Medicine.

About Sports Medicine

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