Doctor Counseling Male Patient

The doctors at the UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program have identified six different clinical trajectories (types) of concussion and developed unique treatment plans individualized for each trajectory. Our doctors believe in an active therapy specialized for the patient to fully rehabilitate and treat concussion.

Learn about our model for understanding concussion assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation.

Cognitive/ Fatigue

Cognitive difficulties include decreased concentration, increased distractibility, difficulty learning/retaining new information, or decreased multitasking abilities. Sometimes accompanied by increased fatigue as the day progresses.

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Impairments of the vestibular system — the balance center of the brain — affect one’s ability to interpret motion, coordinate head and eye movements, or stabilize vision upon head movement.


Ocular dysfunction occurs when the movement of the eyes in tandem, or binocular eye movement, is affected. This may result in difficulties bringing the eyes together, or moving one’s eyes to track motion.

Post-Traumatic Migraine

Post-traumatic migraine symptoms include headaches, nausea, and/or sensitivity to light or noise.


This occurs when someone has a hard time turning his or her thoughts off, being particularly ruminative, or suffering from excessive worry or concern.

About Sports Medicine

Sports and physical activity bring with them a potential for injury. If you are looking to prevent, treat, or rehabilitate a sports injury – or improve athletic performance – UPMC Sports Medicine and the UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program can help. We serve athletes and active people of all ages and experience levels. Our experts partner with the Pittsburgh Steelers, Pittsburgh Penguins, Pitt Panthers, and about 100 other high school, college, and regional teams and events throughout Pennsylvania – working daily to build better athletes.