Updated June 2021
An estimated one-fourth of adults over the age of 65 suffer a fall each year. Falls can often lead to fractures, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle so even a ground-level fall may cause a fracture of the hip — one of the leading causes of disability and death in older individuals.
With the increasing population of older adults in the United States, the number of hip fractures is expected to continue to grow.
Hip Fracture Prevention
According to orthopaedic surgeon Aaron Taylor, MD, it’s important to think ahead to prevent hip fractures. Bone is a living tissue, and the body constantly removes old bone and replaces it with new tissue. Beginning in the mid-thirties, most people gradually start to lose more bone than is replaced, resulting in thinner, weaker bones.
Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races, but those at highest risk are post-menopausal Caucasian and Asian women. The hormonal changes in menopause cause a decrease in the amount of bone density, putting women at risk for osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis, which typically has no recognizable symptoms, is diagnosed through a DEXA scan – a simple and painless test, similar to an x-ray that measures bone mineral density. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment usually consists of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, medication, and weight-bearing exercises.
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Reducing the Risk of Hip Fractures
“Lifestyle choices contribute so much to one’s risk for osteoporosis. To help manage and decrease your risk, it’s important to establish healthy eating and activity habits,” says Dr. Taylor.
Although family history of osteoporosis and small bone structure are key risk factors in developing the condition, anyone can start making lifestyle changes at a young age to prevent its occurrence. This includes eating a healthy diet with adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and doing plenty of weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercise, and avoiding cigarettes and excessive alcohol.
Preventing Falls to Minimize Risk
Fall prevention is another key factor in minimizing the risk of hip fracture. As we age, we lose our ability to recover from an accidental trip, such as over an object or a pet. Seniors often are on multiple medications, and these medications can sometimes interact and lead to dizziness, sleepiness, and loss of balance. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about each medication and how they may interact with each other.
If you are over the age of 50, have fallen, and have suffered a broken wrist, shoulder, or vertebra, you should take notice. These types of injuries may be a warning that you have low bone density.
“Those kinds of fractures can be associated with a higher risk of future hip fracture,” says Dr. Taylor. “So, seeking treatment now could help reduce your risk of hip fracture later.”
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Avoiding Hip Fractures at Home
A home safety evaluation by a professional is recommended to help make your everyday surroundings safer. For example, throw rugs can bunch up and become hazards, and extension cords should never be used across open spaces. Pull bars should be installed in bathrooms, in addition to non-slip bathmats. Avoid risky behavior such as climbing on furniture to change a light bulb or to clean and dust. Adequate lighting is also a necessity, because as we age, eyesight can deteriorate and make it more difficult to see hazards in our path.
With a greater understanding of osteoporosis, its risk factors, and prevention strategies, older individuals can avoid the debilitating condition of a hip fracture and enjoy a higher quality of life.
Orthopaedic Care, Closer to Home
Dr. Taylor is an orthopaedic trauma surgeon at the new UPMC Outpatient Center on Clairton Boulevard, just off Route 51. Patients can see Dr. Taylor for several orthopaedic conditions including:
- General orthopaedics
- Hip pain
- Fracture care
For more information on upper extremity injuries, or to schedule an appointment with Dr. Taylor at the UPMC Outpatient Center on Clairton Boulevard, call 1-866-987-6784.
About UPMC Orthopaedic Care
As a national leader in advanced orthopaedic care, UPMC treats a full range of musculoskeletal disorders, from the acute and chronic to the common and complex. Whether you have bone, muscle, or joint pain, we provide access to UPMC’s vast network of support services for both surgical and nonsurgical treatments and a full continuum of care. As leaders in research and clinical trials with cutting-edge tools and techniques, UPMC Presbyterian Shadyside appears on U.S. News & World Report’s rankings of the top hospitals in the country for orthopaedics.