Quinoa versus rice: Which is a better choice for your diet?

Your gut microbiome is a collection of bacteria in your stomach, intestines, and colon. Both prebiotics and probiotics help balance this ecosystem. This helps improve digestion, immunity, and vitamin production. Research shows a link between a healthy gut microbiome and a lower risk of certain digestive diseases, skin conditions, and inflammation.

Read on to learn about prebiotics and probiotics.

The Difference Between Prebiotics and Probiotics

Probiotics are microorganisms that help keep your gut healthy. Prebiotics are food for the probiotics living in your gut. You can get both through the food you eat or as supplements.

While probiotic foods are naturally fermented, foods that contain prebiotics are often raw.

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What Is a Prebiotic?

Prebiotics are certain types of carbs, fibers, and sugars that humans can’t digest. Instead, the bacteria living in your gut break them down for you. By feeding for your good bacteria, prebiotics help boost the health benefits of probiotics.

Prebiotics also have health benefits of their own. Some of these include:

  • Keeping your gut healthy.
  • Improving calcium absorption in your body.
  • Supporting a healthier immune system.
  • Reducing your risk of heart disease.
  • Reducing or improving eczema.

Many whole plant foods are natural sources of prebiotics. Sometimes manufacturers add prebiotics to foods like snack bars, yogurt, or baby formula. You might see these listed on an ingredients label as:

  • Inulin
  • Chicory fiber
  • Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
  • Oligofructose
  • Galactooligosaccharides (GOS)

What Are Examples of Prebiotics?

Most plant foods have prebiotics but some have more than others. Some of the best sources include:

  • Jerusalem artichokes.
  • Barley, rye, wheat, and oats.
  • Quinoa.
  • Flax.
  • Yams.

A diet rich in plant-based foods, starches, and soluble and insoluble fibers provides the prebiotics you need.

What Is a Probiotic?

Probiotics contain live organisms that add to the good bacteria population in your gut and help create a healthy environment.

Probiotics can help prevent antibiotic-related diarrhea and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, hay fever, and eczema. They can also help reduce colic in infants, lower cholesterol, and improve many other conditions. Find out more about probiotic safety.

If you choose to take a probiotic supplement, look for supplements that contain different types of probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Supplements should also list the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) in each dose. More isn’t always better, so make sure you follow the dosing directions on the label.

What Is a Probiotic Food?

Fermented and cultured foods have some of the same healthy bacteria found in your gut and in probiotic supplements. They provide an easy way to get probiotics along with other important nutrients. Common probiotic foods include:

  • Yogurt.
  • Kefir – cultured milk.
  • Kombucha – a fizzy, fermented tea.
  • Kimchi – Korean fermented vegetables.
  • Sauerkraut – fermented cabbage.
  • Some types of fermented pickles.
  • Miso – a paste made from fermented soybeans.
  • Unfiltered apple cider vinegar.

Not all types and brands of these foods have probiotics, so it’s important to check the food label. Look for words like “live and active cultures” or “probiotics” on the food label.

It’s also important to read food labels for other undesirable ingredients. For example, even though kombucha is a source of healthy probiotic bacteria, it comes with added sugar. If you’re limiting sugar, other probiotic foods are a better option.

What Happens When You Start Taking Probiotics?

Probiotics can help keep your gut healthy. Once you start taking them or eating probiotic foods regularly, you might notice improvements in your digestion. They might reduce constipation and some types of diarrhea.

It’s thought that healthy bacteria also play a role in supporting immune health. So you might also notice fewer colds or allergies.

Side effects are uncommon, but you might experience some gas and bloating when you start taking probiotics. While experts consider probiotics to be safe for healthy people to use, if you have a compromised immune system, ask your doctor before taking any.

Improving Your Health With Probiotics

Prebiotics and probiotics are not interchangeable: you should be getting both regularly. They help populate and multiply the good bacteria in your gut and improve your health in many ways.

Remember, probiotics can work better when you eat prebiotic foods. The two are best when consumed together, working hand in hand to help boost your immunity and gut health.


About UPMC

Headquartered in Pittsburgh, UPMC is a world-renowned health care provider and insurer. We operate 40 hospitals and 700 doctors’ offices and outpatient centers, with locations throughout Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, West Virginia, and internationally. We employ 4,900 physicians, and we are leaders in clinical care, groundbreaking research, and treatment breakthroughs. U.S. News & World Report consistently ranks UPMC Presbyterian Shadyside as one of the nation’s best hospitals in many specialties and ranks UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh on its Honor Roll of America’s Best Children’s Hospitals. We are dedicated to providing Life Changing Medicine to our communities.