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In June 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for children 6 months and older. Previously, only children 5 years old and up were eligible to get vaccinated.
With the authorization, nearly all Americans can receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
Here’s what you need to know about kids and the vaccine.
When Will Children Get the COVID-19 Vaccine?
Children 6 months and older are eligible to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
The Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccine is only available for people ages 18 and older.
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Do Children Need the COVID-19 Vaccine?
Although fewer children have gotten COVID-19 than adults, they still can get infected with the coronavirus. They also can get sick with COVID-19 and can spread the coronavirus to others, even if they’re asymptomatic.
The number of infections among children is rising in the United States.
“As more older people have been able to get vaccinated in the U.S., the proportion of COVID cases in children has increased from previous times during the pandemic,” says Megan Freeman, MD, PhD, fellow, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.
“This is likely due to the easing of restrictions in many areas, an element of quarantine fatigue, and the return of activities like camps and sports.”
Most children tend to get milder symptoms than adults. But they still can develop severe illness, become hospitalized, and even die from COVID-19. Some children have developed a serious condition known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) after getting sick with COVID-19.
Getting vaccinated can help keep that from happening. As of Oct. 17, 2021, nearly 700 children have died and thousands more have been hospitalized from COVID-19. Those totals are higher than the numbers of child hospitalizations and deaths from seasonal influenza, for which we recommend universal vaccination.
With the emergence of variants like Omicron (B.1.1.529), scientists are studying the full effectiveness of the vaccine. But the vaccine offers an important layer of protection, especially in preventing severe illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths.
Although they do have some common side effects, those side effects are generally minor and go away within a few days. The risk of COVID-19 is much higher than the risk of vaccination.
Also, the COVID-19 vaccine is a crucial step in reaching herd immunity against COVID-19. Herd immunity means enough people are immune to a disease to stop its spread, and vaccination is one way to achieve immunity.
Scientists do not yet know how many people would need to be immune to COVID-19 to stop its spread, but estimates range from 70% to 90% of the population. To do that, many millions of children likely would need to get vaccinated.
“Vaccination is another important public health tool for us to drive the case numbers down in the community,” Dr. Freeman says. “The more community protection there is from vaccination, the harder time the virus will have finding new hosts.”
The COVID-19 vaccine can help protect children from getting sick and developing long-term effects, Dr. Freeman says. It also can help protect the community from rising caseloads and may help protect vulnerable loved ones. More data will be needed to show how strongly the vaccine reduces contagiousness.
Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe for Children?
According to all reported data, the vaccine is safe and effective for children. Vaccine clinical trials in children follow the same format as vaccine clinical trials in adults, with rigorous monitoring of safety and efficacy.
According to reported data, the vaccine showed great efficacy and robust antibody responses in trials of children.
There have been no reported safety risks involving the vaccine in children.
Children experienced similar side effects to young adults (ages 16 to 25). Most common side effects in children include:
- Pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site.
- Muscle/joint pain.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
These side effects are generally mild and go away within a few days.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is monitoring reports of the heart conditions myocarditis and pericarditis in people who received the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, especially adolescents and young adults.
According to the CDC, the reported cases were rare and happened mostly in male adolescents and young adults 16 and older. Symptoms usually presented within days of vaccination, and patients typically responded well to rest and medications.
The CDC recommends vaccination for Americans 6 months and older.
The safety of the vaccines will be monitored as distribution continues.
Will Children Get the Same Dosage of the COVID-19 Vaccine?
The dose sizes for children vary depending on age and the vaccine received.
- The Pfizer vaccine dosage for children between the ages of 12 and 17 is the same as the dosage for adults. They receive two doses, delivered at least 21 days apart.
- The dose size for children 5 to 11 years old is one-third the size of the dose for adults. They receive two doses, delivered at least 21 days apart.
- The dose for children 6 months through 4 years old is one-tenth the size of the normal adult dose. They receive two doses, delivered at least 21 days apart, followed by a third dose at least eight weeks after the second dose.
- The Moderna vaccine for children between the ages of 12 and 17 is the same as the dose size for adults. They receive two doses, at least 28 days apart.
- The Moderna vaccine for children 6 to 11 years old is half the size of the adult dose. They receive two doses, at least 28 days apart.
- The Moderna vaccine for children 6 months through 5 years old is one-fourth the size of the adult dose. They receive two doses, at least 28 days apart.
Getting Vaccinated at UPMC
At UPMC, we believe strongly in the importance of the COVID-19 vaccine in ending the pandemic.
“We’re hopeful that this could be as easy as possible for families, which would mean wide availability through local pharmacies, pediatricians, or vaccine clinics at convenient sites,” Dr. Freeman says. “Some of this will depend on the location’s availability to safely store and administer the vaccination, as well as having staffing and logistical support. It’s too soon to say for sure how this will look in each community.”
Moderna COVID-19 Pediatric Vaccine Trial
UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, through the Pittsburgh Vaccine Trials Unit (PVTU), joined the pediatric COVID-19 Moderna “KidCOVE” vaccine trial and is enrolling children ages 6 months to 12 years.
The PVTU is one of 100 study sites in the U.S. and Canada participating in the study, which seeks to enroll 7,050 children. It is being conducted in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
For more information, visit UPMC.com/COVIDVaccine.
Editor's Note: This video was originally published on , and was last reviewed on .
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 in Children and Teens. Link
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, For Parents: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated With COVID-19. Link
Pfizer, Pfizer-BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results of Pivotal COVID-19 Vaccine Study in Adolescents. Link
From nutrition to illnesses, from athletics to school, children will face many challenges growing up. Parents often will make important health care decisions for them. We hope to help guide both of you in that journey. UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh is a national leader in pediatric care, ranking consistently on U.S. News & World Report’s Best Children’s Hospitals Honor Roll. We provide expert treatment for pediatric diseases, along well-child visits, urgent care, and more. With locations across Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia, you can find world-class care close to home. We also work closely with UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital, a national leader in care for newborns and their mothers. Our goal is to provide the best care for your children, from birth to adulthood and beyond. Visit our website to find a doctor near you.