Being told you need surgery or a surgical evaluation for a reproductive health condition is scary and stressful. But surgical techniques have advanced tremendously, and many surgeries are now faster and easier than ever. Today, specialists can use minimally invasive gynecologic surgery to treat a wide range of common health conditions of the reproductive system.
These surgeries have many benefits for the patient. Most importantly, they may not require incisions. Any required incisions are typically small, which allows for a much faster and easier recovery.
Here’s a look at the various types of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery options and some of the conditions they can treat.
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Types of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery
Reproductive health conditions involve the cervix, ovaries, uterus, vagina, and vulva. In the past, many surgeries on these organs required large incisions and a long recovery time. Now surgeons can use less invasive approaches to treat a wide range of gynecologic conditions. Minimally invasive surgery is, as the name suggests, far less invasive than traditional open surgeries.
Laparoscopic surgery is a common form of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Here, a surgeon makes 1 or a few tiny incisions (less than an inch) in your abdomen. Through the incision(s), they insert a narrow tube with a video camera called a laparoscope and surgical instruments.
Your surgeon might do robotic surgery depending on the type of procedure and areas they need to access. It’s similar to laparoscopic surgery in that it requires very small incisions and a camera device to see inside you. But with robotic surgery, video images are in 3D, and the surgeon manipulates the instruments at a console using a robotic arm.
Surgeons might choose to use robotic surgery because it offers:
- Very detailed, high-definition, 3D images of the surgical site.
- The ability to rotate surgical instruments and the camera in any direction.
- Precision and control.
Hysteroscopy is another minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Doctors use this procedure to diagnose and treat problems in your uterus.
During a hysteroscopy, the hysteroscope (a thin, lighted tube) and tools enter your uterus through the vagina and cervix. This requires no incisions.
The Advantages of Minimally Invasive Surgery
All of these minimally invasive surgical techniques are highly effective. Because they don’t require a large incision, they’re also safer and have tremendous advantages for patients.
Patients undergoing minimally invasive gynecologic surgeries receive anesthesia and won’t feel the procedure. You’ll also get additional pain medicine, if needed, afterward. The type of surgery and length of the procedure will depend on your condition, symptoms, and other factors.
- Less blood loss during surgery.
- Lower risk of infections because of smaller incisions.
- Less pain during recovery.
- A shorter hospital stay. In some cases, you can go home within the same day.
- Faster recovery and return to your regular activities.
- Smaller or no scars.
Conditions Treated with Minimally Invasive Surgery
Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery isn’t appropriate for every condition. But these approaches can diagnose and treat a wide range of reproductive health conditions, such as:
- Adenomyosis — when the lining of the uterus grows into the uterine wall.
- Bleeding issues — heavy, painful, or abnormal periods or bleeding after menopause.
- Cervical or endometrial polyps — abnormal growths on the cervix or in the uterus.
- Endometriosis — when cells that line the uterus grow into the abdomen.
- Fibroids — growths in or on your uterus that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility.
- Gynecologic cancers — surgeries help doctors stage and treat cancers.
- Hysterectomy — the removal of your uterus and cervix.
- Infertility — conditions that reduce the likelihood of pregnancy.
- Ovarian cysts — fluid-filled sacs that grow inside or outside of the ovaries.
- Pelvic organ prolapse — pelvic organs may descend into the vagina.
- Pelvic pain — from various conditions of the reproductive organs.
- Tubal ligation — permanent birth control surgery to close off the fallopian tubes.
- Urinary incontinence — the leaking of urine during everyday life.
Surgeons do many of these procedures in an outpatient surgical center, where you can go home in a few hours after your anesthesia wears off. For others, you might need to stay in the hospital for a night or 2. No patient relishes the thought of surgery. But if you need to have a gynecologic surgical procedure, it’s nice to know that these minimally invasive options exist. Talk to your doctor to learn if they can relieve pain or protect your health.
Editor's Note: This article was originally published on , and was last reviewed on .
For more than a century, UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital has provided high-quality medical care to women at all stages of life. UPMC Magee is long-renowned for its services to women and babies but also offers a wide range of care to men as well. Our patient-first approach ensures you and your loved ones get the care you need. Nearly 10,000 babies are born each year at Magee, and our NICU is one of the largest in the country. Our network of care – from imaging centers to hospital services – provides care throughout Pennsylvania and Maryland, giving you a chance to get the expert care you need close to home. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recognizes UPMC Magee as a National Center of Excellence in Women’s Health, and the Magee-Womens Research Institute is the largest research institute in the U.S. devoted exclusively to women’s health and reproductive biology.