Most women consider menstrual cramps a normal part of life that they can manage with ibuprofen or a heating pad. But some women experience debilitating menstrual pain that may be related to a condition called endometriosis.
“Everyone complains about their period. But if you can’t function for a week every month, that’s not normal,” says Nicole Donnellan, MD, gynecologic surgeon, UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital. She specializes in diagnosing and treating endometriosis.
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What Is Endometriosis?
Endometriosis is a benign disorder in which the cells that normally line the uterus grow throughout the pelvis. This abnormal cell growth can interfere with fertility and cause pain during your period.
Who Does Endometriosis Affect?
It’s estimated that endometriosis affects 1 in 10 women.
“Because it’s driven by hormones, endometriosis mostly occurs in women between the ages of 18 and 45,” Dr. Donnellan says. It is very rare in postmenopausal women.
It’s difficult to tell how many women endometriosis affects. Among women treated for pain and/or infertility, about 40% to 70% receive a confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis.
“Many other women have the disease but don’t seek treatment because they don’t have pain,” Dr. Donnellan says.
Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis
The most common symptom of endometriosis is pain — when menstruating, during or after sexual intercourse, or when having a bowel movement or urinating. Endometriosis often goes undiagnosed because these also are symptoms of other diseases and disorders, including pelvic inflammatory disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and ovarian cysts.
The exact cause of the disorder is unclear. And the only way to confirm an endometriosis diagnosis is with surgery and a tissue biopsy.
“There are no imaging or blood tests for it,” Dr. Donnellan says.
Treatment Options for Endometriosis
Medical options to treat endometriosis include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, hormone therapy (birth control), and drugs that keep your body from producing estrogen.
For some women, laparoscopic surgery to remove the abnormal tissue may be appropriate when medical options fail.
Because treating endometriosis is a team approach, UPMC Magee established a multidisciplinary endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain program. The program has locations in Oakland, Cranberry Township, and Erie. Patients who seek care at these locations receive evaluations from both a gynecologic surgeon and a physical therapist who specializes in pelvic floor disorders.
“A women’s health physical therapist joins me in meeting with patients during their first visit,” Dr. Donnellan says. “We work together to optimize the care of each patient and communicate throughout every patient’s journey.”
For more information on endometriosis care at UPMC, visit our website.
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About UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital
For more than a century, UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital has provided high-quality medical care to women at all stages of life. UPMC Magee is long-renowned for its services to women and babies but also offers a wide range of care to men as well. Our patient-first approach ensures you and your loved ones get the care you need. Nearly 10,000 babies are born each year at Magee, and our NICU is one of the largest in the country. Our network of care – from imaging centers to hospital services – provides care throughout Pennsylvania and Maryland, giving you a chance to get the expert care you need close to home. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recognizes UPMC Magee as a National Center of Excellence in Women’s Health, and the Magee-Womens Research Institute is the largest research institute in the U.S. devoted exclusively to women’s health and reproductive biology.