• Understanding

    Depression

    When you think of depression, you might think of being sad, or just down in the dumps. But in fact, it’s much more than that. It’s a clinical condition that can take control of your life and cause serious complications. According to the National Institute of Mental Health about 16 million people had at least one episode in the past year. To put that into perspective, that’s one out of every 10 people.

    depression graphic

    Symptoms of Depression and Treatment Options

    Depression symptoms may be different for everyone. One person may experience symptoms that seem to last for years, while others will only have moderate bouts and return to their normal life relatively quickly. However, depression can be treated, often with medication, psychological counseling or both. Other non-conventional treatments also may help. But before any type of treatment is initiated, the symptoms must be recognized. When people experience episodes of depression, they may suffer through:

    • Sadness, unhappiness, or an emptiness feeling
    • Sleep disturbances
    • Severe lack of energy where even the smallest tasks require extra effort
    • Loss of interest in hobbies or normal daily activities
    • Changes in appetite (some people may eat less and lose weight while some may overeat and gain weight)
    • Anxiety or restlessness
    • Fogginess, confusion, and slowed speaking or body movements
    • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, or suicide

    Causes of Depression

    Because depression is such a complex disease, the causes of it can greatly vary. One theory suggests that it may be caused from having too much or too little of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals communicate information throughout our brain and body. When the nerves that release these chemicals malfunction, too little or too much of these neurotransmitters may be released, which has been linked as a known cause of depression. Certain antidepressant medications work to control the release of these neurotransmitters.

    Yet, this information is not conclusive. Many researchers don’t agree that a simple increase or decrease of brain chemicals is the lone factor when determining that causes of depression. Rather, it’s a combination of factors, which may include:

    • Genetic vulnerability (depression may be more common in people whose relatives also suffer, or have suffered from depression)
    • Faulty mood regulation by the brain
    • Stressful life events (loss of a loved one, high stress, childhood trauma or recent trauma)
    • Medications or medical problems

    Depression Is Not Mental Weakness

    Often, people associate being depressed as a sign of weakness. In a recent study conducted by the National Mental Health Association, out of 1,022 adults interviewed by telephone, 43 percent said they believed depression is a personal weakness. However, this is far from the truth. Depression does not discriminate. It can affect anyone of any ethnicity. Whether, you’re rich or poor, or old or young, depression can affect you.

    If you or someone you know is suffering from depression, seek help. It’s never too late talk to someone about getting better. There are an array of hot lines and helpful information where you can seek the help of professionals 24 hours a day. There is also helpful information on suicide awareness and prevention.

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  • Dont Get Beat By

    The Heat

    The temperatures are rising and the weather is warm! As with every season, the summer months bring a whole new set of health risks due to the changing weather. In the midst of all the summer fun, you may be too caught up in the excitement to recognize when your body has been negatively affected by the heat. We sat down with Matthew Synan, MD, of Pulmonary Consultants–UPMC to discuss two particular health risks that people encounter during the summer: heat stroke and heat exhaustion.

    While they are two different conditions, many people often get confused because of their similarities. Both conditions are on the spectrum of temperature related illnesses, but differ in severity.

    Heat Exhaustion

    Heat exhaustion occurs when the body temperature is less than or equal to 104 F (40 C).

    Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:

    • Dizziness
    • Mild confusion (which normalizes within 30 minutes of treatment)
    • A faster heart rate with normal blood pressure
    • Mild to moderate dehydration.

    Heat Stroke

    Heat stroke can be the more serious of the two conditions. It occurs when the body’s core temperature is greater than 104 F (40 C), and is characterized by:

    • Abnormal mental status (such as delirium, hallucinations, or slurred speech),
    • A faster heart rate coupled with low blood pressure
    • Moderate to severe dehydration

    There are two distinct types of heat stroke and heat exhaustion: classic and exertional. Classic heat stroke and exhaustion can occur without any activity or physical exertion and is more common in individuals age 70 or older, or those who have a chronic medical condition. Exertional heat stroke and exhaustion occurs as a result of physical activity and is most common in young individuals who engage in heavy exercise during high temperatures such as athletes and military recruits.

    Some medications, such as allergy, heart, or psychiatric prescriptions can put you at an increased risk because these medications may limit the body’s ability to sweat.

    In the event that you should develop any symptoms of heat exhaustion, take actions quickly to cool yourself down by:

    • Removing clothing
    • Spraying yourself with cool water or taking a cool bath
    • Using fans
    • Applying ice packs to the armpit, neck, and groin.

    If not taken care of quickly, both of these conditions may evolve and result in:

    • Kidney, respiratory, and liver failure
    • Muscle breakdown
    • Blood disorders
    • Death

    Some ways to prevent the onset of these conditions is to limit your physical activity outside when the temperatures are highest or perform them in the evening when it is coolest. Also, wear loose clothing and take frequent breaks. Dr. Synan stresses that by far the most important thing to do is to drink plenty of fluids and stay hydrated!

    If you or someone you know has been hit with a heat-related illness, please follow these tips to help them recover. Do not hesitate to pay a visit to the Emergency Medicine at UPMC center for immediate treatment.

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  • What to Eat

    At the Ballpark

    Nothing says summer quite like watching baseball with a bucket of popcorn in one hand and a giant soda in the other. With delicious ball-park treats surrounding you, watching your calorie intake can be quite a challenge. Cheesy nachos, hamburgers, and ice cream may be tasty, but their calorie content can easily knock your diet off-track.

    So, how do you enjoy a baseball game without sacrificing your dietary discipline? Start by considering this infographic. It’s full of useful food information, so that the next time you line up at the concession stand, you’ll remember which foods are safe and which foods strike out.

    Ballpark Healthy Choices Infographic

    By following some of these simple tips, you’ll be able to keep your diet on base and strike out hunger, while enjoying a summer day at the ballpark.

    What are some of your favorite healthy sporting event snacks?

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  • Bloating Foods to Avoid Before

    Going to the Beach

    Summer is in full swing and you may be planning a trip to the beach. Whether you want to show off the beach body you worked hard to build, or just want to relax while catching some sun, no one likes that bloated, full feeling that can happen after we eat. There are a number of snacks you may want to avoid packing in your cooler that can cause “beach bloat” as you’re lounging on the sand. Here are some foods to avoid before going to the beach and some healthier alternatives that you can enjoy while soaking up some sun.

    Carbonated beverages

    Carbonated beverages can cause gas retention and stomach bulge.

    Substitute: Rather than reaching for the soda, try flat water or ginger tea. Ginger has a neutralizing effect on your gastrointestinal tract.

    Salt and sodium

    Curb salt and sodium intake. When you eat sodium-rich food, you retain more water which can leave you looking and feeling bloated. Foods like bananas, avocados, mangos, and papayas can help because they are high in potassium. Potassium acts as a natural diuretic, helping to flush the system of excess sodium.

    Substitute: Salt-free seasonings such as Mrs. Dash

    Cruciferous vegetables and legumes

    Foods like broccoli, kale, and cabbage are good for long term weight loss, but if you’re headed to the beach, you may want to avoid these. They contain a complex sugar called raffinose which has been known to cause bloating.

    Legumes like beans, peas, and lentils are packed with protein, but cause excess gas that leads to bloating.

    Substitute: Cooked vegetables over raw. Try mushrooms or squash instead.

    Apples

    Apples are packed with beneficial nutrients, but they are also high in fiber and carbohydrates which can cause excess gas.

    Substitute: Canned fruit in their natural juices or dried fruit like raisins or plumbs.

    Gum

    Chewing gum causes you to inhale excess amounts of air, causing your stomach to swell.

    Substitute: Roasted nuts, or raw, unsalted sunflower seeds.

    Alcohol

    When you drink too much alcohol, you can get dehydrated, which results in your body retaining fluid.

    Substitute: Homemade fruit smoothies.

    Dairy

    Lactose is the sugar found in dairy products. If you feel gassy after a bowl of cereal with milk or a few slices of cheese, you may be lactose intolerant. This can cause gas to form in the gastrointestinal tract, which may trigger bloating.

    Substitute: Non-dairy alternative or lactose free products like Lactaid.

    Summer is meant to be enjoyed to the fullest — and it’s difficult to enjoy summer fun when your stomach is at its fullest. With a little planning before you hit the beach, you can fill your cooler and beach bag with several healthy snacks that won’t leave you feeling sluggish in the sunshine.

    What are some of your favorite healthy summertime snacks? Please share them with us in the comments. We’d love to hear from you!

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  • Dr. Andrew-Jaja

    the Singing Doctor at Magee

    What better way to enter the world than with a song? Over the last several decades, Carey D. Andrew-Jaja, MD, FACOG of Magee-Womens Hospital, has welcomed each of the babies he’s delivered with a beautiful song. Dr. Andrew-Jaja has delivered thousands of babies.

    Dr. Carey Andrew-Jaja, Singing Doctor, Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC

    Update: Watch Dr. Andrew-Jaja’s Reaction to His Video Profile Going Viral

    Dr. Andrew-Jaja inherited the tradition from his mentor, an older obstetrician and gynecologist on staff, and sings “Happy Birthday” and “It’s a Wonderful World” to each baby.

    “When I’m singing to those babies, I’m singing to a future important person,” says Andrew-Jaja. “It’s a beautiful world we live in. You forget about all the crisis going on everywhere for a moment when you see that miracle of life in front of you.”

    Dr. Andrew-Jaja delights in developing a unique bond with each and every baby he delivers. His mantra is “Confront every encounter with a smile on your face and a song in your heart,” something he practices every day. In this video interview below, watch as Dr. Andrew-Jaja sings to two beautiful newborns, one of which is the son of a former baby whom Dr. Andrew-Jaja delivered decades ago.

    For more information on Dr. Andrew-Jaja and Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, visit our website or call us at 412-641-1000.

    Dr. Jaja’s story was recently featured in an article on Huffington Post.

    Watch Good Morning America’s segment on Dr. Jaja, the “Doc-Star.”

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Men’s Health Tips By the Decades

by Main Slider by Orthopaedic Surgery

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In recognition of Men’s Health Week (June 9-14), Christopher Rhody, MD, a primary care physician at West Hills Family Practice–UPMC, offers tips to make the most of each decade of life. Check out this infographic and read the article below to learn more about our Men’s Health Tips.

Celebrate Men’s Health Week by sharing this with all the men in your life to make health a priority!

upmc-health-decades-men

In your 20s…

In this age group, two important things to pay attention to are your diet and the amount of exercise you get every day. During this decade it is important for males to adopt healthy lifestyle habits, as they will influence their health behaviors later in life. For exercise, running or jogging is a good option for most young males. If running is not an option, then a two-mile walk at a brisk pace is sufficient. If you use supplements to enhance your workouts, be mindful of the ingredients.

Many people in their 20s live a very active and on-the-go lifestyle that can make eating healthy difficult. Dr. Rhody’s rule of thumb when eating on the go is, “If they can get it to you in less than 15 minutes, don’t eat it.” Men in this stage of life may consider their diet as healthy if they are following the nutritional guidelines set by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This means for each meal, at least half of your plate should consist of fruits and vegetables, and the other half should include equal portions of whole grains and lean protein.

Dr. Rhody also points out, “What happens in your 20s effects you in your 50s.” An example of this is men who experience health difficulties later in life due to their prolonged time in the sun early in life. It is important to take care of your skin at any age by avoiding tanning beds and using sunscreen and protective measures, such as wearing sunglasses or a hat to help prevent the risk of skin cancer later on in life.

Also during this stage, males tend to lose weight much easier but it will not always be that way. As men age, their ability to lose weight easily and quickly will decrease. Practice healthy habits early on and abide by them throughout your lifetime.

In your 30s…

Dr. Rhody stresses the importance of scheduling regular visits to your primary care physician for routine check-ups and testing during this decade. Many men in their 30s do not feel like they have the time or the need to go to the doctor because they feel fine. Whether or not you feel perfectly healthy, routine tests can help uncover hidden health problems. Your primary care physician can help determine what type of testing is best suited for you.

Exercise and diet become even more crucial for men in their 30s because of the likelihood of significant lifestyle changes that can accompany this decade. Many men are working longer hours, getting married, or raising a family so some of their healthy lifestyle habits can fall by the wayside. It is important to make sure you exercise daily. Males in their 30s need a longer, more sustained period of exercise, rather than short bursts of activity such as chasing their children around the yard.

Dr. Rhody encourages men to not become sedentary as they go through this period in their lives. It’s also important to concentrate more on their diet than they may have before, even if daily exercise is not always possible. Men’s ability to control their weight decreases with age, so it becomes even more important to make sure you are making healthy, nutritious choices for your meals.

In your 40s…

Similar to your 30s, Dr. Rhody urges men in their 40s visit the doctor on a regular basis. This is the age when men may begin to experience prostate or heart problems. Consulting your doctor to help determine the appropriate testing may help to catch problems early and before they become more serious health concerns.

A proper diet continues to be very important and has several health benefits for men in their 40s. Males should eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, and be mindful of serving size. Follow the basic rule of “all things in moderation,” and remember that a serving size is approximately the size of a deck of cards. If getting the recommended two cups of fruits and three cups of vegetables a day is a challenge, try taking a multivitamin to help you get the proper vitamins and nutrients. It is also especially important for men in this age group to drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated, as it has numerous benefits for your skin, waistline, and overall health.

Exercise is key at any stage of a man’s life, and the 40s are no different. As men age, especially those who have been very active, joint pain and stiffness may increase and can start to slow some men down. Daily exercise is preferred, but listening to your body’s limits is essential. If other exercise becomes challenging a two-mile walk is recommended. Dr. Rhody suggests walking at a pace “fast enough so that when you are talking while walking, you feel the need to take a deep breath after speaking.”

In your 50s…

Dr. Rhody urges men of this decade to work with their doctors to develop the health plan that’s best for them. This may include screenings, tests, and assessments. Be sure to ask if a colonoscopy is right for you and talk about ways to maintain diet and exercise routines.

As you advance into your 50s, Dr. Rhody offers the following tips to maintain a healthy diet:

  • Cut out unnecessary sugars
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Pay attention to your choices regarding alcohol type because these calories can quickly add up

Men in their 50s should also focus on incorporating new activities into their lifestyles. Don’t let the stiffness that comes with aging prevent you from exercising. Consider changing up your fitness routine to include joint-friendly options like swimming (around 20 laps a day), biking (10 miles daily), or simply adjusting your pace on walks.

In your 60s…

In addition to maintaining some level of physical activity, Dr. Rhody recommends focusing on mental adjustments to the life changes this decade brings. Continue to stay active and busy if and when you have retired from your regular career or job. To keep your mind active, consider the following tips:

  • Read more
  • Join clubs and senior leagues
  • Take leadership roles in your organizations

If possible, integrate physical activity into your routines. Contrary to common belief, you do not have to slow down at this age. Dr. Rhody cautions that becoming sedentary at this age could be detrimental..

Don’t worry if you have not previously been physically active. Tai Chi, Yoga, and other fitness programs that focus on stretching can provide many health benefits. Remember to hydrate before, during, and after workouts to help prevent injuries.

Actively manage your health at this age. Keep records of your appointments, medications, and symptoms. Stay current on tests, screenings, and assessments.

In your 70s and beyond…

Men in their 70s should take care to keep the home environment safe. Vision often deteriorates as we age so be sure to remove loose rugs, sharp edges, and other health and safety hazards. Consider adding safety handles in the bathroom and signing up for medical monitoring services. If living alone, consider welcoming a small pet into your household.

Dr. Rhody emphasizes the importance of centralizing your medical care with primary care physicians. Keep records of your medications and side effects but remember primary care physicians can be used as your health care hub to help you stay informed about your health care needs.

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About Orthopaedic Surgery

An established leader in advanced orthopaedic care, the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery offers comprehensive services for the full spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions. Our more than 40 orthopaedic surgeons and staff use some of the latest imaging technologies for diagnoses, and perform some of the most advanced surgical techniques as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

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