Check back in with the UPMC HealthBeat blog for news and updates on the Zika virus
So, how much of a threat does the Zika virus really pose to you?
Zika is a viral disease transmitted through mosquitos, and sometimes, sexual contact. The virus has rapidly spread through Central and South America, and garnered much media attention in the process.
Though it generally causes mild symptoms, Zika can sometimes result in serious birth defects, making the threat of Zika potentially troubling for pregnant women or women who hope to become pregnant.
Sorting through reports and articles on Zika can be overwhelming, and some facts about Zika still remain a mystery.
Myth: Zika is a brand new, never-before-seen virus
Fact: The Zika virus was first detected in Uganda in the 1940s. Zika has been known to the medical community for the past fifty years, though it was assumed to only be mosquito-borne until relatively recently.
Until 2007, only a few dozen cases of Zika had been recorded. By 2015, a multi-country outbreak of the virus thrust it into the international spotlight.
Myth: Zika can be transmitted through contact, much like the common cold
Fact: You can only contract Zika through the bite of an Aedes mosquito, via sexual transmission, or by needle-sticks with infected blood. Casual contact and being near someone with Zika will not result in infection.
Myth: The Zika Virus is in Pennsylvania
A few state residents have been diagnosed with Zika, but none of them contracted the virus via a mosquito in the United States.
One of the species of mosquitoes that can transmit the virus does live in Pennsylvania, but there have been no local Zika transmission from mosquitoes in the United States. It is possible that a domestic transmission via mosquito will occur in the US in the future.
Myth: Everyone who contracts Zika develops symptoms.
Fact: Only one in four people with Zika will develop symptoms, so the majority of those who contract the virus will show no outward signs of it. The most common symptoms of Zika are minor and include:
- Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
- Arthralgia (joint pain)
Myth: Men do not have to worry about any lasting, negative effects of Zika
Fact: If you have recently contracted Zika, the virus can remain in your system for up to two months. Men who have contracted the virus should abstain from sex or use condoms for up to six months to avoid spreading the disease to their partner.
Even if your partner is not planning to become pregnant, it is better to be safe rather than risk transmission and the potential of birth defects.
Myth: Zika causes the development of birth defects only in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Fact: Birth defects can develop across gestation, however Richard H. Beigi, MD, vice president of medical affairs and chief medical officer at Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, confirms the greatest risk is in the first trimester of pregnancy when the baby’s vital structures are forming.
As is common with other infections, only a minority of pregnant women with the Zika virus have babies born with birth defects, though the exact percent is unknown.
Myth: Using insect repellent containing DEET is harmful to pregnant women
Fact: There is no reason to believe that DEET bug spray is risky for pregnant women. Reapply insect repellent as often as needed, especially if you are in an area where Zika is prevalent.
Myth: There is little you can do to protect yourself from Zika
Fact: If you find yourself needing to travel to an area affected by Zika, there are many steps you can take to prevent contracting the virus:
- Use insect repellent that contains DEET (at least 20 percent recommended)
- Wear long sleeves and pants
- Stay in a place that has air conditioning to avoid opening windows
- Remain indoors as much as possible
- Get rid of all stagnant water and empty containers that can collect water
Avoid traveling to a Zika-infected area unless you absolutely need to, especially if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant soon.