For most Americans, measles may simply seem like an old-fashioned disease that worried our parents and grandparents. But measles is hardly a thing of the past.\nIn fact, the recent measles outbreak serves as a frightening reminder that eradication of this and other diseases may not be permanent. To keep measles outbreaks at bay, it’s important to vaccinate children against the disease.\nBefore the measles vaccine was developed, an estimated 500,000 Americans were diagnosed with the disease every year, and about 500 died from it. In the year 2000, infectious disease experts considered measles eliminated in the United States.\nYet its incidence has been increasing steadily over the past several years. Last year, there was a total of 118 cases. Because of the 2018 outbreak, 107 people in 21 states have been affected.\nMeasles Symptoms\nThat’s a problem, because measles is not benign. It is highly contagious and is considered the deadliest of all childhood rash and fever illnesses. The virus typically causes:\n\nA rash\nBloodshot eyes\nRunny nose\nFever\nSore throat\nCough\nMuscle pain\n\nMeasles Complications\nComplications of measles can include:\n\nEar infections\nBronchitis\nPneumonia\nEncephalitis (inflammation of the brain)\nSeizures\nHearing loss\nDeath\n\nBefore immunization was widespread, most people had developed measles by age 20.\nYou can see why it’s important to do everything you can to prevent measles. Yet one of the main reasons for the recent measles outbreak appears to be the decision of some parents not to vaccinate their children against the disease. Despite fears to the contrary, the combined measles, mumps, rubella (German measles), and varicella (chicken pox) vaccine, also known as MMRV, is safe. There is no solid evidence that it can cause autism or other disorders. As this latest measles outbreak shows us, choosing to forgo vaccines may be a personal choice, but it can have far-reaching\u2014and dangerous\u2014consequences for the general public.\nSome of the children who have been diagnosed with measles were too young to be immunized: Their health and safety depended on something called “herd immunity.” In other words, when the majority of people in a community are immunized against measles, there is little opportunity for an outbreak. That means that even people who cannot receive certain vaccines (such as infants and pregnant women) still get some protection against the disease. But when parents decide not vaccinate, the chances of an outbreak increase, putting everyone at risk.\nVaccinate Your Children\nThe biggest step you can take toward protecting yourself and others against the disease is to make sure that your child is immunized against it. The MMRV vaccine is credited with dramatically decreasing the number of measles cases in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control recommends all children get two doses of the MMRV vaccine, with the first dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Your child’s pediatrician can discuss the best vaccination schedule with you.