If you have chest pain or other signs of heart problems, your doctor might recommend a cardiac catheterization. Also called a cardiac cath or heart cath, this procedure can help your doctor diagnose and treat blocked arteries and other heart problems. Learn the facts about this common procedure, and what you can expect.
Do I Need a Heart Cath?
If you have signs of a heart problem, your doctor will order tests to find out what’s causing your symptoms. Depending on your test results, you might need a catheterization, especially if you have:
- Symptoms like chest pains, shortness of breath, or pain or pressure in your shoulders, arms, jaw, neck, or back,
- Signs of a heart defect, a problem with your heart muscle, or abnormal heart valves
What Can I Expect During and After Cardiac Catheterization?
Catheterization happens in a hospital, in a special room called a catheterization laboratory, or cath lab. Your doctor will talk with you about what to do before your procedure, including whether or not you can take your regular medicines.
During cardiac catheterization: What to expect
During your procedure, you’ll be awake and, you’ll get medicine to help you relax. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor will choose an artery in your leg or arm to insert the catheter. Your doctor makes a small puncture in your skin, and then puts the catheter into your blood vessel. You may feel some pressure when your doctor puts the catheter in, and the insertion area might be sore afterward. Many people have bruising as well.
Your doctor guides the catheter into your heart and uses a special dye to make your blood vessels show up on an x-ray called an angiogram. The angiogram will show if you have blocked or narrowed arteries. If you do, your doctor might perform angioplasty and stenting to open up the blockage and help your blood flow better.
After cardiac catheterization: What to expect
Once the procedure is done, your doctor removes the catheter and puts a bandage on the puncture site. You’ll stay in the hospital for a few hours, or overnight, while you recover.
Is Cardiac Catheterization Risky?
Cardiac catheterization is very common and rarely causes serious problems, but all medical procedures have some risks. Some cardiac cath risks can include:
- Bleeding, infection, and pain at the catheter insertion site
- Damage to your blood vessels
- Allergic reaction to the dye that is used during cardiac angiography
Less common risks can include:
- Arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat
- Kidney damage from the dye
- Blood clots, which can cause a heart attack, stroke, or other serious problem
- Low blood pressure
- A buildup of fluid around the heart
Learn more about the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute’s cardiac catheterization services or call 1-855-UPMC-HVI (876-2484) to schedule an evaluation with a catheterization specialist.