Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. This rare and life-threatening condition makes it difficult for blood to flow from the heart to the lungs. PH gets worse over time, and it affects men and women of all ages and ethnic backgrounds.
The most common symptom of PH is shortness of breath with exertion, and this worsens over time.
Types of Pulmonary Hypertension
- Pulmonary Hypertension is a common term used to describe high blood pressure in the lungs, resulting from any cause.
- Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension is a chronic condition that causes the lungs’ arteries to tighten, constricting blood flow. Over time, this condition can cause the heart to enlarge and become less flexible. Pulmonary arterial hypertension may be genetic or associated with another disease or condition, such as congenital heart disease or HIV.
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Pulmonary Hypertension Symptoms
PH changes the cells that line your pulmonary arteries.
People with PH may notice that normal physical activities become more difficult to perform. They may also experience some of these symptoms:
- Cough or chest pain
- Passing out
- Inability to lay flat without being short of breath
- Swelling of the ankles or abdomen
Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension may be caused by a variety of different conditions, all of which affect blood pressure. The causes of PH include:
- Autoimmune diseases that damage the lungs, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis
- Birth defects of the heart, heart failure, or heart valve disease
- Blood clots in the lung (pulmonary embolism), or other lung diseases such as COPD or pulmonary fibrosis
- HIV infection
- Chronic low oxygen levels in the blood for a long time
- Certain medications
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These risk factors may make you more likely to develop PH:
- Family history of PH
- Sleep apnea
- The presence of certain drugs in your body, such as methamphetamines
- Living at high altitudes
How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?
Although it is a relatively uncommon disease, it is important to make an early and accurate diagnosis. If untreated, PH can lead to right heart failure and increased risk of death.
Treatment for Pulmonary Hypertension
While treatment options for pulmonary hypertension are limited, physicians are able to control symptoms and minimize lung damage. Common treatments include medication taken orally, by the nose, or administered intravenously.
If medication isn’t successful in controlling symptoms, heart or lung transplantation may be considered.
Lifestyle Changes for Pulmonary Hypertension
If you’ve been diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension, it’s important to work closely with your health care provider.
- Know the names of your medications and take them as directed. Always consult with your doctor before taking any over-the-counter medicines.
- You may want to consult with a dietitian. Those with pulmonary hypertension should be sure to eat foods high in potassium, fiber, and magnesium. They should limit their consumption of table salts and refined sugars, and stay away from fast food.
- If you’re overweight, your doctor will likely recommend a weight loss regimen. You should avoid heavy lifting or overly strenuous activities. Avoid smoking, chewing tobacco, or drinking alcohol.
Living with Pulmonary Hypertension
To learn more about pulmonary hypertension or to schedule an appointment with a pulmonary hypertension specialist, call 412-648-6161, or toll-free at 1-877-PH4-UPMC, or email PHprogram@upmc.edu.
Visit the UPMC Comprehensive Pulmonary Hypertension Program webpage for more information.
The UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute has long been a leader in cardiovascular care, with a rich history in clinical research and innovation. As one of the first heart transplant centers in the country and as the developer of one of the first heart-assist devices, UPMC has contributed to advancing the field of cardiovascular medicine.