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People with epilepsy have higher rates of being autistic or having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, or depression than adults without epilepsy. At the same time, autistic people or people with ADHD or depression also seem to have a higher risk of epileptic seizures.

Although the reasons aren’t clearly understood, epilepsy seems to be linked with many mental health issues.

The reasons behind why these conditions are closely linked aren’t fully understood yet. It seems there are similar changes in brain functioning among these conditions. It’s also possible that the electrical disruptions from epilepsy can affect certain areas of the brain and cause behaviors common to ADHD, depression, and autism.

Epilepsy and Depression

Living with seizures is tough. It’s common to experience sadness, frustration, anger, and even embarrassment. People with epilepsy tend to have a higher risk of developing depression; likewise, people with depression have a higher chance of developing epilepsy.

Seizure and anti-epileptic medications may also play a role in developing depression because they can affect the mood centers of the brain. Brain injury that affects these mood centers may also lead to depression.

Treatment for both conditions gets tricky. People with depression tend to be more resistant to seizure medications, and many antidepressants cannot safely be combined with these medications. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or counseling may be a first step in treating depression.

Epilepsy and ADHD

Adults with epilepsy are more likely to have ADHD symptoms than adults without. In one large survey, about 18 percent of respondents with epilepsy had ADHD symptoms, compared with just over 4 percent of adults without.

People with epilepsy and ADHD tend to have higher rates of depression and anxiety as well. Given that these are common triggers for seizures, it’s possible this could increase the frequency of seizures. Researchers are trying to make more connections between the two and find ways to manage ADHD.

Epilepsy and Autism

About one-third of autistic people also have epilepsy. It’s unclear whether epilepsy leads to common behaviors associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or whether the atypical brain activity present in autism makes a person more likely to have seizures. Either way, research is showing that the two conditions are closely linked.

One reason is thought to be because the electrical bursts that cause seizures disrupt the brain’s normal functioning that controls socialization. The brain’s misfirings lead to behaviors similar to what commonly characterizes autistic people, such as less eye contact or less social interaction.

If you have epilepsy and any signs of depression or ADHD, it’s important to talk to your physician. Together, you can find a treatment plan to help you manage seizures as well as your mental and emotional health. For more information on epilepsy treatment options, visit the UPMC Department of Neurosurgery.

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